Mind, Soul, Self, Spirit, and Consciousness can all refer to a more specific aspect of mental life.
It's hard to know the exact meaning of these words but the realities of them are religious or spiritual.
Because the brain is the organ of the mind, there is question about the existence of an immortal soul or the possibility of an afterlife.
The success of neuroscience is showing that there are correlations between certain states of the brain and certain associated mental experiences , including religious ones, has been interpreted by some as a direct refutation of traditional beliefs about mystical experiences and the immortality of the soul. According to this skeptical stance, an experience can be caused by the brain or by an immaterial being (God or the soul) but not both: a neurological explanation of an experience rules out a supernatural or religious one. Science has explained away the supernatural.
The mind interacts with the brain, or uses the brain as its instrument.
Why is it that particular bits of matter exhibit the properties of consciousness and others do not?
How do you articulate how mental realities can be both dependent on and yet autonomous from the physical?
To say that the mind is autonomous, not in the sense of being able to exist independently of the brain, but in the sense that it exhibits properties and regularities that are not susceptible to systematic reduction to the neurological level.
--- If modern science suggest that belief in an immortal soul is problematic, it might equally, question the evidential basis for the notion that at some point in the future God will bring history to an end in a final act where the universe will be destroyed and recreated and the dead will be brought back in bodily form to be judge by their maker.
If you cannot believe in spiritual rebirth or physical resurrection, their is subjective immortality-- the selfish desire for heavenly rewards in a future life should be replaced by a more humble hope that one might live on after death through one's friends, children, or work.
"I don't want to achieve immortality through my work. I want to achieve it through not dying." - Woody Allen
Thomas Dixon Science and Religion: A Very Short Introduction